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INTRODUCTION OF SRILANKA > 朝圣及旅游 Pilgrimage and Tourism
 
斯里兰卡概况 Basic Infomation
 
朝圣及旅游 Pilgrimage and Tourism
 
文化与艺术 Culture and Arts
 
宗教信仰 Religion
 
节日 Festivals
 
中斯佛教交流 Buddhists Communication Between China and Sri Lanka
 
 
朝圣及旅游 Pilgrimage and Tourism

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早在7世纪以前,马可波罗就曾描述斯里兰卡国王的财富中的一颗宝石为“无以伦比的宝石”。这个描述也适用于这个国家本身,因为没有一个度假胜地能有与其媲美的海滨,盛有无穷秘密 的古城,丰富的自然遗产,以及独特的迷人的文化。 斯里兰卡的历史可以追溯到公元前6世纪,因此这个岛国拥有珍贵的古城,神殿及寺庙,从有2500年历史的古AnuradhapuraDambulla的洞庙宇,Sigiriya的岩石宫殿,Polonnaruwa的高耸的佛像,到康提的神庙以及加勒的殖民城堡。除了这些文化遗产之外,在这里还能找到小型 的森林或荒野草地,生长着数百种稀有的植物和动物群,有成群的大象、猴子,也有美丽的鸟类和蝴蝶。 在斯里兰卡山区地带,清凉的山间气候与热带海滨气候形成了鲜明的对照,漫山遍野长满了绿色植物,这里出产世界上最好的茶。在Ratnapura市周围,地下盛产宝石和半宝石--蓝宝石,红宝石,紫翠玉和紫水晶。这些无与伦比之处距美丽的印度洋海滨以及斯里兰卡的商业都市科伦坡仅几个小时的路程。早在7世纪以前,马可波罗就曾描述斯里兰卡国王的财富中的一颗宝石为“无以伦比的宝石”。这个描述也适用于这个国家本身,因为没有一个度假胜地能有与其媲 美的海滨,盛有无穷秘密的古城,丰富的自然遗产,以及独特的迷人的文化。 斯里兰卡的历史可以追溯到公元前6世纪,因此这个岛国拥有珍贵的古城,神殿及寺庙,从有2500年历史的古Anuradhapura,Dambulla的洞庙宇,Sigiriya的岩石宫殿,Polonnaruwa的高耸的佛像,到康提的神庙以及加勒的殖民城堡。除了这些文化遗产之外,在这里还能找到小型 的森林或荒野草地,生长着数百种稀有的植物和动物群,有成群的大象、猴子,也有美丽的鸟类和蝴蝶。 在斯里兰卡山区地带,清凉的山间气候与热带海滨气候形成了鲜明的对照,漫山遍野长满了绿色植物,这里出产世界上最好的茶。在Ratnapura市周围,地 下盛产宝石和半宝石--蓝宝石,红宝石,紫翠玉和紫水晶。这些无与伦比之处距美丽的印度洋海滨以及斯里兰卡的商业都市科伦坡仅几个小时的路程
More than seven centuries ago, Marco Polo described one of the gems in the treasury of the King of Sri Lanka, a magnificent ruby, as ‘brilliant beyond comparison’. That description might just as well apply to Sri Lanka itself, for indeed no holiday destination can compare with this beautiful island's miles of gorgeous beaches, ancient ruined cities shrouded in timeless mystery, a rich natural heritage and a uniquely fascinating living culture. A history stretching back to the sixth century BC has endowed this island with the richest treasury of ancient cities, shrines and temples, from the 2500 year old grandeur of Anuradhapura, the cave temples of Dambulla, the rock palace of Sigiriya and the towering Buddha statues of Polonnaruwa to the temple of Kandy and the colonial battlements of Galle. In addition to the cultural heritage, one can find around the island pockets of forest and wilderness sheltering hundreds of rare species of flora and fauna, herds of elephants and troops of raucous monkeys to gorgeous birds and butterflies. In Sri Lanka’s hill country, cool mountains offer a delightful contrast to the tropical sunshine of the coast, lush green plantations carpeting misty hillsides producing the world's finest tea. Around the city of Ratnapura, the earth yields up a bounty of precious and semi-precious stones - sapphires, rubies, alexandrite and amethysts. Each of these unmatched attractions is within a few hours of some of the finest beach resorts of the Indian Ocean Island and Sri Lanka’s commercial capital and gateway, Colombo.

 

主要旅游点 Major tourist Attractions

热带海滨 Tropical Beaches

斯里兰卡最美的海滨在该岛的南部和西部海岸,那里有绵延数百公里的黄金海岸线,后面是高高的棕榈树,与印度洋相结。科伦坡北部的胜地Negambo距离斯里 兰卡国际机场非常近。 Lavinia山是斯里兰卡最长的海滨胜地,再往南方,从Beruwela和附近的Bentota南方延续到Hikkaduwa有很多优良的宾馆为游人提 供服务。这是在游泳池内或在海滨放松的绝好去处。他们也提供诸如冲浪、滑水、snorkelling帆板运动或潜水等大量的活动。
Sri Lanka’s best beach resorts are on the island's south and west coasts, where more than hundred miles of golden beaches backed by tall palm trees, meet the Indian Ocean. North of Colombo, the resorts of the Negambo area are ideally located close to Sri Lanka’s international airport.
Mount Lavinia is Sri Lanka’s longest established beach resort, while further south, a chain of fine hotels extends from Beruwela and nearby Bentota southward to Hikkaduwa. These are ideal spots to relax by the pool or on the beach. They also offer plenty of activities from surfing, water-skiing and windsurfing to snorkelling and diving over wrecks and reefs.

 

圣地及旅游城市Cities for Pilgrimage and Visiting

 

科伦坡 Colombo

科伦坡是一个迷人的都市。北部的边界上的贸易区是该国的商务中心及著名游览胜地,拥有包括钟塔,古老的灯塔和总统房子在内的景点。边界上的贸易区的东部是丰 富多彩的Pettah市场区。国家美术馆,艺术画廊,以及很多的清真寺,教堂,佛教和印度的庙宇等都是游览景观。Bandaranaike 国际机场距科伦坡市约30 km。
Colombo is an attractive capital and is easy to get around. The Fort district in the north, is the country’s business centre and sights include the clock tower, a former light-house, and the President's House. East of the Fort is the colorful Pettah bazaar district. The National Museum, the Art Gallery and the cities' many mosques, churches, Buddhist and Hindu temples are popular places for visiting. Bandaranaike International Airport is located approximately 30 km from the Colombo city.

 

加勒 Galle

从加勒的南部可以看到荷兰对斯里兰卡的影响。1663年建造的占地36公顷的荷兰的堡垒,有规模庞大的城墙,内有荷兰风格的房子,博物馆和教堂。
The Dutch influence in Sri Lanka is
clearly visible in the southern part of Galle. The 36-hectare Dutch Fort built in 1663, has massive ramparts surrounding the promontory that forms the older part of Galle and contains Dutch houses, museums and churches.

 

阿努拉达普拉 Anuradhapura

建于在公元前5世纪的Anuradhapura被看作佛教之都。圣树Bo tree由小树苗长成,佛教最初由此获得启迪,是历史记载的最古老的树。附近有黄铜宫殿的遗址和高耸的Ruwanveliseya Dagaba。其他景点包括thuparama,Jathawana,Abhayagiri,Lankarama和Mirisavatiya在内。坐佛,庙宇,宫殿和公园,所有这些都是斯里兰卡人值得自豪的富有想象力的证据。Mihinthale,佛教的摇篮,与公元前247 年把佛教介绍到该岛的Arahat Mahinda有关。这里的宗教和艺术,建筑,雕刻和雕塑,绘画和碑文等都已经历经了15个世纪的洗礼。其中月长石是所有建筑和神殿建造的基本,是以 Isurumuniya爱好者而著称的岩石雕刻。建于3世纪的Kuttam Pokuna,佛的Aukana雕像等都是保存很好的纪念物。
The sacred city of Anuradhapura, founded in the 5th century BC is venerated as the capital city of Buddhism. The scared Bo tree grown from a sapling of the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment is the oldest living
tree in documented history. In its vicinity are the remains of the Brazen Palace, and the towering Ruwanveliseya Dagaba. The others sites include the Thuparama, the Jathawana, the Abhayagiri, the Lankarama and the Mirisavatiya. The Seated Buddha, temples, palaces and parks - all of which bear testimony to a proud and imaginative people. The Mihinthale - the cradle of Buddhism is connected with Arahat Mahinda who brought Buddhism to the island in 247 BC. Religious and secular art and architecture, carving and sculpture, paintings and inscriptions, have survived elements for over fifteen centuries. Among these are moonstones, which constituted the first step to any building or shrine, the famous rock carving known as the Isurumuniya lovers. Kuttam Pokuna, or twin ponds built in the third century, the Aukana statue of Buddha, are well preserved monuments.

 

婆咯纳卢瓦 Polonnaruwa

Polonnaruwa 被称为第二首都,是从11世纪到13世纪的中期的政府所在地。到这里来的游人都会对由国王Parakrambahu建立的Parakrama Samudra前的独特的图像感到惊奇。这是一个占地面积为5,940英亩,灌溉18,500英亩的水稻的灌溉水库。一座12世纪时的雕像被称为 “圣 人”,大家普遍认为它象征着Parakkamabahu 国王一世。国王Parakramabahu宫殿的遗迹被描述为一个7层楼的大厦。以Kumara Pokuna而闻名的皇家浴室的建筑体现了错综复杂的几何学的设计。Parakramabahu国王议会厅饰有大象和其他各种动物以及传统的月长石和在入 口的守卫石头都是经典之作。建于7世纪的Siva Dewale,Vatadage或环行纪念物thuparama是用砖和水泥建造的庞大的坐佛,Lata Mandapa和精美的佛塔Atadage,11世纪的第一个神殿遗迹,里面的人物衣着高贵,身穿Bodhisatva,Galpotha,有长8米的宽 4.25米的石碑,上面有国王Nissanka Malla碑铭。Galvihara的用整块花岗石雕刻的佛像群是世上罕见的杰作,也是Polonnaruwa重要景点之一。
The second capital was the seat of the government from the middle of the eleventh century until the thirteenth century. A traveller to Polonnaruwa will wonder about the identity of the image in front of the Parakrama Samudra established by king Parakrambahu. This large irrigation reservoir covers 5,940 acres and irrigates 18,500 acres of rice paddies. A 12th century statue often referred to as ‘he Sage’ is popularly believed to represent king Parakkamabahu I. The ruins of king Parakramabahu’s palace are described as a se
ven-story edifice. The royal baths known as the Kumara Pokuna represents an intricate geometrical designs. King Parakramabahu’s Chamber of Council with elaborate carvings of elephants and other animals around the base and traditional moonstones and guard-stones at the entrance are master pieces. Siva Dewale, Vatadage, or circular relic house in the seventh century, the Thuparama is an image house meant for a colossal seated Buddha of brick and stucco, Lata Mandapa, and elaborate stupa house Atadage, the first tooth relic shrine in the eleventh century, Hetadage or the sacred tooth relic shrine built in the twelfth century, standing image in the princely attire of a Bodhisatva, Galpotha, or stones book which is 8 metres long and 4.25 metres wide, bears inscriptions of king Nissanka Malla. Galvihara the one of the finest groups of sculptures of the Buddha carved from a single granite wall found anywhere in the world are some of the important sites to be viewed at Polonnaruwa.

 

锡吉里亚 Sigiriya

由国王Kassapa(公元447-495年) 建造的有1500年历史的Sigiriya城堡是世界著名建筑之一。国王运来了一个600英尺高的岩石以使城堡坚不可摧。今天Sigiriya提供给游人 一个展览6世纪绘画作品的美术馆,以及精美的风景画,是当今世界上其他的城堡所无可比拟的。在岩石的中部发现了一幅画,上有23位女性,其中大部分为两人 一组,通常为一位女士和她的女仆。所建造的镜子墙壁运用了独特的金属化合物,使其反光效果绝佳。
The citadel of Sigiriya, founded 1500 years ago by king Kassapa (447-495 A.D.) is one of the most remarkable creations in the world. The King transformed a 600ft high rock into an impregnable fortress. Today Sigiriya offers the visitors a gallery of 6th century painting coupled with landscaped gardens, unravelled and unmatched by any contemporary citadel in the world. Paintings of 23 damsels, mostly in pairs and usually consisting of a lady and her maid, are found halfway up the rock. The mirror wall owes its reflecting surface to an extraordinary combination of ma
terials used in the construction of the wall.

 

丹布拉 Dambulla

Dambulla被称为缅怀过去之城。Dambulla的主要神殿或其金色的洞庙宇已经在出现在相当数量宗教和历史性文章中。姿态各异的塑像为佛、菩萨、神、女神、僧侣、佛门弟子以及国王。神殿里的绘画面积达25,000平方英尺,是南亚州最大的,世界上最古老的绘画。
Dambulla is reminiscent of the past. The principal shrine at Dambulla or the golden cave temple of Dambulla has been cited in a number of religious and historical texts. The images in a number of postures are those of the Buddha, the Bodhisatva, gods and goddesses, monks, disciples and kings. Covering 25,000 sq ft, the area of paintings in the shrine is the largest in South Asia and the oldest in the world.

 

康提 Kandy

康提是斯里兰卡的文化之 都,也是世界上最漂亮的城市之一。康提峡谷为群山所包围,每年都有丰富多彩的露天表演在此举行。大象沐浴,植物园,瀑布和群山,这仅仅是其吸引人的一部 分。神殿内有被称为“Dalada Maligawa” sacred tooth relic 。它包括一个八角盒,现在放着珍贵的佛书。艺术,建筑学和庙宇的绘画艺术无不反映了国王及其他王室成员多年以来对提高其美和历史价值的的慷慨资助。
“Nuwara Perahara”或称为康提的露天表演,是世界上最丰富多彩的活动之一。大约100头衣着华丽的大象和1000多舞蹈演员鼓手和绅士们由寺院的管理人代 领,沿途有几十万的观客向由大象首领带的神殿里的小盒致意。队伍连续7天在大街上游行,直到8月的满月为止。
Pinnawala大象孤儿院在康提的途中,是40多头大象的乐园。

Kandy, Sri Lanka's cultural capital, is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The valley of Kandy is surrounded by hills and a colourful pageant takes place in Kandy annually. Elephant bathing, botanical gardens, waterfalls and the mountains are only some of the attractions. The sacred tooth relic is housed in the temple known as the “Dalada Maligawa”. It includes an octagon, which now houses a rare collection of Buddhist books. The art, architecture and paintings in the temple, stand testimony to the generosity of the kings and other members of royalty who patronized the temple through the years to enhance its beauty and history.
The “Nuwara Perahara”, or pageant of Kandy, is the most colorful processions in the world. About 100 caparisoned elephants and over 1000 dancers, drummers and noblemen, led by the custodian of the temple of the sacred tooth relic, parade past hundreds of thousands of spectators, while they pay homage to the casket of the sacred tooth relic carried by the king of the elephants. The procession moves along the streets for seven consecutive nights and concludes on the day of the August full moon.
En-route to Kandy is the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage, the home to more than 40 elephants.

 

康提国家博物馆 Kandy National Museum

康提国家博物馆展览有从16世纪到19世纪精美的艺术品,包括佛像,皇冠,贵族的形象及木雕等。科伦坡的国家美术馆也是用斯里兰卡的艺术和古董之宝库,有青铜镜,木雕,Anuradhapura雕刻,Polonnaruwa以及近期文物。
The Kandy National Museum displays some of the finest objects of art from the 16th century to the 19th century. The Buddha statues, the crown of kings, images of the noblemen, and wooden carvings are preserved in the museum. The national museum in Colombo is also a repository of Sri Lankan art and antiques, the finest bronzes, wooden carvings, sculptures of the Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa and later periods.

 

康提的皇家植物园 Kandy Royal Botanical Garden

康提的皇家植物园是世界上最好的热带植物园。植物园内有相当数量的植物品种以及在生物工程,生态学,保存和分类等方面科技资料。公园每天对外开放,一年四季鲜花盛开。Peradeniuya和Hakgala的皇家花园里有大约4000种棵植物。
Kandy Royal Botanical Garden is among the finest tropical gardens in the world. the botanical garden has a comprehensive collection and the scientific programme in bio-technology, ecology, conservation and taxonomy. The garden, open to the public every day, has flowers in bloom throughout the year. About 4000 plants specious thrive in the Royal Botanical Gardens in Peradeniuya and Hakgala.

 

努瓦拉艾利亚 Nuwara Eliya

Nuwara Eliya位于Pidurutalagala之脚,海拔6812英尺,是斯里兰卡的最高点,她被称为亚洲的花园城市,以其小山,峡谷和瀑布闻名。来这里游 览的游客可以享受宜人的气候,玩高尔夫球,逛公园,赞美茶园,访问Hakgala皇家植物园,到Horton Plains“世界尽头”旅游,这落差达几千英尺。
每年从12月到4月份有 很多志愿者攀登2,224米高的Adam's Peak,位于Nuwara Eliya区的Maskeliya镇子附近,亚当山峰是具有1000多年历史的参拜圣地。在山顶景观之侧有一个脚印,佛教徒认为是佛的足迹, 回教徒认为是属于亚当,印度人认为是Shiva的。

Nuwara Eliya, known as the garden city of Asia for its hills, valleys and waterfalls, is 6,182 feet above sea level and is situated at the foot of Pidurutalagala, Sri Lanka’s highest peak. tourists who visit Nuwara Eliya to relish the salubrious climate play golf, enjoy the park, admire the high-grown tea plantations, visit the Hakgala botanical garden and travel to the ‘worlds end’ at Horton Plains, where there is a steep drop in the terrain of several thousand feet.
From December to April devotees climb the 2,224 metre Adam’s Peak, near the town of Maskeliya in the Nuwara Eliya district. Adam's Peak has been a place of pilgrimage for more than 1000 years. At the top, aside from spectacular views, is a footprint claimed by Buddhists to be the footprint of Buddha, Muslims believes it to belong to Adam, and Hindus believe that the print had been made by Lord Shiva.

 

国家公园 National Parks

位于Yala,Wilpathu,Bundala,Uda walawa,Randenigala,Wasgamuwa,Somawathieya,及Maduru Oya国家公园都非常迷人,那里有豹,大象,猴子,鹿,野猪和熊,及各种鸟类供游人参观。Sinharaja雨林是亚洲仅存的热带性的雨森林之典范,它也 是170多种外来植物的生长地。Horton Place具有特殊的吸引力。这遥远的高原是该岛上仅存的山林,有世界上其他地方没有的一些稀有动植物群。Kumana和Weirawilla是两个宏大 的鸟之积聚地,有高跷,barbets,苍蝇棒球接手,朱huan,塘鹅,鹦鹉,孔雀,parakeets,魔鬼鸟,隼,丛林家禽和鹳等各种鸟类。
The national parks such as Yala, Wilpathu, Bundala, Uda walawa, Randenigala, Wasgamuwa, Somawathieya and, Maduru Oya hold the greatest appeal, where visitors can watch leopards, elephants, monkeys, deer, wild boar and bear and a variety of birds. The Sinharaja rain forest is an example of one of the few such remaining tropical rain forests in Asia. It is also a primeval sanctuary for over 170 varieties of exotic orchids. Horton Place is a special attraction. This remote plateau is the island's last remaining mountain forest - the home of some fauna and flora species found nowhere else in the world. Kumana and Weirawilla are two magnificent bird sanctuaries. Stilts, barbets, fly catchers, Ibis, pelicans, parrots, peacocks, parakeets, devil birds, hawks, jungle fowl and stork abound in these sanctuaries.

 

走走看看 Getting Around

公共汽车和火车是斯里兰 卡目前的主要运输方式,因为斯里兰卡现在还没有国内航空运输。乘坐火车旅行非常舒适,现代化的私人汽车票价合理。自己驾车也很普遍,而且,租一辆带有司机 的汽车在岛上进行一天旅行或两三天游览有为合算。在从科伦坡到Kandy的途中,可以看到很多“单一种植”的村落,有很多热带水果诸如菠萝,腰果树,香 蕉,avacado,芒果和椰子等。在斯里兰卡最流行的购买是茶叶。手工艺品还有木雕、编织品、陶瓷器和金属制品。斯里兰卡尤其以珠宝石而闻名。Ambalangoda是斯里兰卡的面具的最好去处,而Ratnapura是斯里兰卡宝石贸易的中心。 斯里兰卡航空公司有从香港、曼谷和新加坡到科伦坡的固定航班,新加坡航空公司、泰国航空公司和中国航空公司在这几个都市之间都有直飞航班。
Buses and trains are the dominant modes of transport as there are no domestic passenger flights in Sri Lanka at present. Train travel is comfortable and modern private coaches provide tours at reasonable cost. Self-drive cars are popular and with more than one person, it is economical to rent a car with a driver for a day trip or even a few days tour of the island. On the road linking Colombo and Kandy are a series of ‘monoculture’ villages seen and tropical fruits like pineapples, cashews, bananas, avocados, mangoes and coconuts are available plentifully. The most popular purchase in Sri Lanka is tea. Woodcarvings, weavings, pottery and metal work are among the popular crafts. Sri Lanka is especially renewed for its gems and jewellary. Ambalangoda is the best place to see Sri Lankan masks, and Ratnapura is the centre of Sri Lanka’s gem trade.

(摘自斯里兰卡驻中国大使馆网站)

 
   
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